Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and generically under various other names, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. Viagra pills are blue and diamond-shaped with the words “Pfizer” on one side, and “VGR xx” (where xx stands for “25”, “50” or “100”, the dose of that pill in milligrams) on the other. Its primary competitors on the market are tadalafil (Cialis), and vardenafil (Levitra).
Mechanism of action
Part of the physiological process of erection involves the parasympathetic nervous system causing the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum of the penis. NO binds to the receptors of the enzyme guanylate cyclase which results in increased levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), leading to smooth muscle relaxation (vasodilation) in the corpus cavernosum, resulting in increased inflow of blood and an erection.
Sildenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of cGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) which is responsible for degradation of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. The molecular structure of sildenafil is similar to that of cGMP and acts as a competitive binding agent of PDE5 in the corpus cavernosum, resulting in more cGMP and better erections. Without sexual stimulation, and therefore lack of activation of the NO/cGMP system, sildenafil should not cause an erection. Other drugs that operate by the same mechanism include tadalafil (Cialis®) and vardenafil (Levitra®).
Sildenafil is metabolised by hepatic enzymes and excreted by both the liver and kidneys. If taken with a high-fat meal, there may be a delay in absorption of sildenafil and the peak effect might be reduced slightly as the plasma concentration will be lowered.
Dosage and price
As with all prescription drugs, proper dosage is at the discretion of a licensed medical doctor. The dose of sildenafil is 25 mg to 100 mg taken once per day between 30 minutes and 4 hours prior to sexual intercourse.
It is usually recommended to start with a dosage of 50 mg and then lower or raise the dosage as appropriate. The drug is sold in three dosages (25, 50, and 100 mg), all three costing about US$10 per pill. Name-brand Viagra sildenafil is not scored and a fairly hard coating makes it more difficult to accurately cut the pills in half, even with a pill cutter.
* When taking nitric oxide donors, organic nitrites and nitrates, such as glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin), sodium nitroprusside, amyl nitrite (“poppers”)
* In men for whom sexual intercourse is inadvisable due to cardiovascular risk factors
* Severe hepatic impairment (decreased liver function)
* Severe impairment in renal function
* Hypotension (low blood pressure)
* Recent stroke or heart attack
* Hereditary degenerative retinal disorders (including genetic disorders of retinal phosphodiesterases)
Amongst sildenafil’s serious adverse effects are: priapism, severe hypotension, myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden death, stroke and increased intraocular pressure.
Common side effects include sneezing, headache, flushing, dyspepsia, prolonged erections, palpitations and photophobia. Visual changes including blurring of vision and a curious bluish tinge have also been reported.
Care should be exercised by patients who are also taking Protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV. Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of sildenafil, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of sildenafil, increasing the incidence and severity of side-effects. It is recommended that patients using protease inhibitors limit their use of sildenafil to no more than one 25-mg dose every 48 hours.
Some sildenafil users have complained of blurriness and loss of peripheral vision. In May of 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration found that sildenafil could lead to vision impairment and a number of studies have linked sildenafil use with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.
When used with an alpha blocker, take them at least four hours apart to avoid hypotension.
The preparation steps for synthesis of Viagra (sildenafil citrate) are as follows:
1. Methylation of 3-propylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid ethyl ester with hot dimethyl sulfate.
2. Hydrolysis with aqueous NaOH to free acid.
3. Nitration with oleum/fuming nitric acid.
4. Carboxamide formation with refluxing thionyl chloride/NH4OH.
5. Reduction of nitro group to amino.
6. Acylation with 2-ethoxybenzoyl chloride.
8. Sulfonation to the chlorosulfonyl derivative.
9. Condensation with 1-methylpiperazine.
Propoxyphene Common brand names: Propoxyphene is a narcotic pain reliever found in Darvon, Darvocet N-100 and Darvon Compound-65. Description: Propoxyphene is chemically unrelated to the codeine...